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Miiiome™ Aqua Feed (Fermented)
29 Days Trial on Fourfinger Threadfin and Red Snapper

Threadfin Underside of Mouth


Lesions seen on the underside of the mouth of the Control, fewer lesions seen on the MA

Threadfin Gills


Eroded areas of the gills


  • Lesser surface area in gill filaments for filtering oxygen from water for breathing

  • Fish are likely to be less tolerant to a drop in dissolved oxygen content in the  seawater

Visibly healthier gills in terms of colour,  no erosion of gills seen

Threadfin Guts


Both the fish were of similar size,  but the guts of the Control fish  were visibly much larger and had  distended (hardened) stomach and  intestines filled with a yellowish  liquid.

Threadfin Functioning Parts of the Guts

  1. Pyloric Caeca - helps in digestion.

  2. Liver – multifunctional organ acting in detoxification, deposition and metabolism of carbohydrates and fats.

    • Produces Bile for the digestion of fats.

  3. Small Intestine – nutrient absorption.

Threadfin Guts Analysis and Comparison

  1. Pyloric caeca - In the Control, this is grossly enlarged, almost twice  the size of the MA.

  2. Liver - In the Control, it feels harder to the touch compared to the MA.

  3. Stomach - In the Control, the stomach is distended and feels hard compared to the MA. When the  stomach of the Control is cut, it showed undigested feed. The fish had last been fed in the morning, which  was more than 8 hours ago.

  4. Small intestine - In the Control, this is grossly enlarged and appears to be filled with a yellowish fluid.

  5. Spleen - Central component of the immune system and plays an important role in responses against pathogen invasion.

  6. Gall bladder - Stores the bile that is created by the liver. Bile promotes the digestion and absorption of fat and improves feed utilisation. Typically, dark green in colour. In the Control, the gall bladder is a translucent  yellow.

Red Snapper Skin and Scales

  • Skin mucus is patchy at  some parts of the fish

  • Fish colour is darker

  • Scales are not formed  properly, missing in some  areas of the fish

  • Skin mucus is consistently  thick across the whole fish

  • Colour of fish is brighter, well-formed scales

Red Snapper Gills


Extent of lesion on gills on Control is larger than Miiiome™ Aqua Feed (MA)

and appears to be spreading

Red Snapper Guts


Inflammation observed in the guts of the Control

  1. Liver - Liver of the MA is softer to the touch, and more pinkish in colour

  2. Adipose (fatty) tissue - There appears to be inflammation in the fatty tissue of the Control

  3. Swim bladder - There appears to be more fatty tissue in the Miiiome™ Aqua Feed (MA) , covering almost all of  the swim bladder

Red Snapper Guts Comparison

  1. Liver - feels harder in the  Control than the MA when  touched.

  2. Gall bladder -  appears  to be swollen in the  Control.

  3. Intestines - appears as  bright red in the Control,  likely to be a sign of  inflammation.

  4. Adipose (fatty tissue) - firm and well formed and  firm in the Miiiome™ Aqua Feed (MA) , appeared  more viscous in the  Control.

Feeding and Mortality

  • Miiiome™ Aqua Feed (MA) fed Threadfin showed significantly lower mortality rate during 29 days' trial (18 Sept – 17 Oct 2021)

  • There was a sudden surge in mortality observed in the Control (Commercial Brand Aqua Feed) Threadfin from  2 – 17 Oct 2021, but for the MA Threadfin, a total of 16 fish died during this  same period

  • Feeding pattern of MA fed fish (both Threadfin and Red Snapper) showed visibly greater appetite and excitement during feeding times

Taste and Texture

  • Fish from both sets (Control and MA) were prepared  and cooked the same way, with some salt, and then  steamed

  • Minimal seasoning was added so that the taste of the  fish would not be masked by the seasoning

  • Through this trial, we have shown that SEATOBAG™ Miiiome™ Aqua Feed is able to improve the gut health of the fish.

  • This improved gut health helps the fish by:

    1. Improving appetite of fish

    2. Improving digestion and absorption of nutrients from the feed

    3. Improving mucus development on the fish (as  seen evidently in the Red Snapper) which may  play an important role in helping the fish to fight  infections and other diseases

    4. Improving the immune system so that there is less  inflammation internally in the guts and other vital  organs including intestines, liver, and gall bladder.

  • Lastly, as the taste test, fish fed with Miiiome™ Aqua Feed also received comments that it has a better texture and improved taste when cooked.

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